Step 2: Uncover the Mental Operations that Students Must Master to Get Past the Bottleneck

The second step in the Decoding process is to make explicit the mental operations that students must master in order to overcome specific bottlenecks in a course.  Since many of these are so automatic to instructors that they have become invisible, a systematic process of deconstructing disciplinary practice is necessary.  The links below can provide suggestions on this process and examples of the process in action.

Once the mental operations required for success at the task at hand have been identified, these must be modeled for students in Step 3.